Last updateMon, 27 Aug 2018 3am

Basics of Clamp Meter by Fluke

What is a clamp meter and what can it do? What measurements can be made with a clamp meter? How do you get the most out of a clamp meter? Which clamp meter is best suited to the environment the meter will be used in? The answers to these questions can be found in this application note.

With technological advances in electrical equipment and circuits come more challenges for electricians and technicians. These advances not only require more capability in today’s test equipment, but more skills on the part of the people who use them. An electrician who has a good grounding in the fundamentals of test equipment use will be better prepared for today’s testing and troubleshooting challenges. The clamp meter is a important and common tool found in the tool boxes of electricians and technicians alike.

Click to download the Technical Article

Optimize Gasoline Blending with Accurate Total Sulfur and Distillation Analysis

Tight blending specifications are required to make gasoline at the most reasonable cost. On-line analysis provides crucial information to prevent product giveaway and reprocessing. Susan Harris with PAC, and Randy Ridge with Marathon Petroleum, co-presented the “Comparative On-Line Atmospheric Distillation and Total Sulfur Analysis Methods in the Gasoline Blender” paper at this year’s ISA A&D 2013 symposium. This paper presents a technology discussion for total sulfur analysis and determining distillation boiling points in the gasoline blender, including:

  • How lab and process data correlations are interpreted and best practices, including a discussion of ASTM methods
  • How tight monitoring can help the process and improve profitability
  • What issues occur when transitioning to process control
  • How to optimize sampling and specific installations

Click to download Paper from PAC

Case Study: Turkey’s refinery chooses Rotork valve automation for Retrofit upgrade

Rotork valve actuation and two-wire digital control technology has been chosen for a major upgrade and automation programme at the Tupras Izmit refinery in Turkey.

Tupras is Turkey’s largest industrial company and leading refiner, operating four refineries of which Izmit is the largest. First opened in 1961, production at Izmit of commodities including LPG, naphtha, petrol, jet fuel, kerosene and diesel is now running at over 11 million tons a year.

More than 900 explosionproof Rotork IQ intelligent electric valve actuators will be installed in a four stage project to motorise manually operated valves on the refinery’s tank farms. Nearly 800 of the actuators will be retrofitted on existing valves whilst the balance will consist of new actuated valve packages. Many of the actuators will be factory fitted with intumescent fireproof coatings.

Click Case Study to read in detalis

An Efficient Solution to Measuring CO2 in Natural Gas Applications

Natural gas mainly consists of methane (CH4 70–90 %). There are a number of other components (ethane, propane, butane, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and others) including carbon dioxide (CO2) which may be present in concentrations from several ppm up to 8%. Pipeline transmission legislation sets limits for the CO2 content of natural gas. Therefore, CO2 has to be measured and, if necessary, reduced by technical processes such as amine washers, polymeric membranes, or pressure swing absorbers (PSAs).

Measuring the CO2 content of natural gas can be accomplished by various means including gas chromatography and optical non-dispersive infrared measurement. Often a simpler and more cost-effective solution is the use of a process gas analyzer setup.

Methane, ethane, propane and other hydrocarbons in natural gas influence the CO2 measurement. This cross interference is low for methane (approx. 1:700), but larger for ethane (approx. 1:100) and higher hydrocarbons. If CO2 has to be measured in the percent range, the error from cross interferences by the background gases is negligible. Calibration can be performed with the mean background concentration of the natural gas components. Even calibration in nitrogen might be possible.

For ppm CO2 ranges, calibration with mixed background gases or a nitrogen background is not possible. Varying gas composition in natural gas would lead to varying errors in CO2 measurement, which are too high for ppm measurement ranges. To overcome the problem of varying background in natural gas, a special gas analyzer setup with a CO2 absorbing agent can be used. In an external sample handling system the sample gas stream is split and the CO2 in one stream is removed with a scrubber. This stream is flowing through the reference side. The other stream which still contains the CO2 is applied to the measurement side of the analyzer cell. With this configuration, variations in the background of natural gas will affect both sides of the analysis cell and will therefore be cancelled out. In the external sample handling system, the left vessel contains the CO2 absorbing material, whereas the right vessel is a blank vessel filled with glass beads to equalize the flow.

Click to read the Application Note by Emerson.



Making Accurate Temperature Measurements with Thermocouples, Thermistors and RTD Sensors

As one of the most common physical phenomena engineers and scientists monitor, temperature measurements are vitally important to ensure proper functioning of a vast array of applications. While modern systems have simplified this process for users, understanding the theories, operation, and inherent pitfalls of temperature measurements can help improve the accuracy and reliability of your data.

This white paper explains the pros and cons of the most widely-used temperature transducers: thermocouples, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), and thermistors. Click to download the White Paper by MC Measurement Computing