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SAFETY SHUTDOWN SYSTEMS: Design, Analysis and Justification

This is good book for I&C Engineers who are involved in Design, Installation and Maintenance of Safety Shutdown Systems. This book is equally good for Plant Users, Engineering Companies and Service providers. Any one from Process Industries such as Refineries, Gas Plants, Chemical, Petro-Chemical can read it and get basic knowledge about Safety Systems.. Authors have explained the theories and concepts about safety systems in a very simple way and without complicated mathematics. Starting from Design Life Cycle, subject of 'Risk' has been defined in a very academic way. Concept of Protection Layers has been explained which can be easily understood by an average student. Best thing about this book is that subject of chapters follow the ...
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Flow Rate for Gas Differential Pressure Devices (Orifice, Nozzle and Venturi)

Flow Rate Equations are provided here for general use which are in accordance with: American Gas Association Report 3 American Gas Association Report 5 American Gas Association Report 8 American Petroleum Institute API MPMS 14.3.1 Following equations can be used for Mass Flow Rate, Volumetric Gross Flow Rate, Volumetric Net Flow Rate and Energy Flow Rate 1.  Mass Flow Rate at Flowing Conditions ‘Qm’ (Klbm/hr) Q =(C x EV x Y x  ∏/4 x d2 x sqrt(2 x ΔP x Pf) ) x 3600/ 1000   2.  Volumetric Gross Flow Rate at Flowing Conditions ‘Qv’ (MCF/hr) Qv =  Qm / ρf 3.  Volumetric Net Flow Rate at Base Conditions ‘Qb’ (MSCF/hr) Qb =  Qm / ρb 4. Energy Flow Rate at Base Conditions ‘Qe’ (MMBTU/hr) Qe = ( Qb x HV ) / 1000   Nome...
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To migrate to new Control System Platform or not

Whether to migrate to new process control system and decommission the existing one; is a question asked by many plant owners. It is not only a matter of cost but lot of human resources and time is required to accomplish this successfully. Migrating to a new platform whether it is same OEM/vendor or new, is a question to be answered by the persons working for the plant. If this question is asked to vendors/sellers, then no one answer would be obtained.  New seller would provide arguments in the favor of new platform.  He will first focus on the disadvantages of the existing system and may argue following in favor of the migration. Parts will eventually become obsolete and not supported by the OEM. Degrading parts of the system will tend...
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Socket, Socks and Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

Networking and Internet security has become an important issue in the Industry Automation. This blog takes three very basic terminologies which are used by us in routine. Socket A socket is the endpoint of a connection over a TCP/IP network, much like a phone is the endpoint of a connection in the telephone network. A socket is the combination of a TCP port and an IP address. Ports are logical interfaces for applications, and they are assigned numbers. For example, The Web’s HTTP protocol is located at port 80. Using the telephone analogy, the TCP port is then like a telephone number and the IP address is the location of the phone. A socket is like a phone that has been assigned a phone number. However, a typical host can have many socke...
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